The reason is that it is more convenient to go directly from Qiatu to Dalian, which will benefit Dalian’s port advantage. In fact, the big government is worried that the route will be biased towards Zhangjiakou and the Russians will continue to infiltrate south.

However, the Russian attitude is very firm, saying that if they don’t support it, they will finish the railway alone. If the two sides can’t talk it over, the Russians will be dissatisfied with the infiltration of big capital. If it weren’t for the help of big ports at that time, they wouldn’t let the big shareholders take the opportunity. Fortunately, they announced that they would return it to the early stage because of the disagreement in business philosophy. The railway will be monopolized by Russia.
The change of Russian attitude is puzzling. They don’t agree with Dahe. Don’t they want to benefit Dalian? Or did they reach an agreement with the British, who no longer prevented them from building the railway to Yingkou? The news from the British was that the British eventually opposed the Russian railway to reach here, and soon the truth came out. Russia said that Li Hongzhang accepted the Russian loan to build the Beijing-Zhangjiakou railway, so that Zhangjiakou would be connected with Beique and Tianjin. Russia has a special place in Tianjin Port. Their tax revenue here is one-third of that of other powers. The reason is that they want to re-export from land. Now that there is a railway, land transportation is greatly reduced, but this special thing is still there.
So Russians really don’t need Dalian Port, because they can be located closer to Tianjin Port, and Russian businessmen have already set up a sea route from Hankou to Tianjin, so what do you need to detour from Dalian?
After the news broke out, the British reacted quickly. They had no way to oppose Russia’s railway construction, and there was no reason to oppose the Qing Dynasty’s railway construction in their own land. However, they believed that once the railway was completed, Russian forces could not only control Hankou tea trade from Tianjin South, but Russia would be able to compete with Britain for the trade interests of the Yangtze River basin.
Britain stepped up its lobbying for the Qing dynasty, hoping that the Qing government would give priority to the construction of beijing-shanghai railway, and that it would be able to build a railway from Tianjin to Pukou through the Jinpu line. Britain would be able to connect one end of the railway with the Yangtze River and the other end with Tianjin, but when wade and Li Hongzhang handled the Majiali case, the British made Li Hongzhang very unhappy, so this time they gave the British enough face.
After the British joined forces with the United States to launch a lobbying offensive against Li Hongzhang and promised many conditions, Li Hongzhang promised to give priority to the construction of this railway. He would hire British and American technicians, mainly to make British rails and steam locomotives jointly borrowed by Britain and the United States, and the repayment method would no longer require tax mortgage, but the railway operating profits would be paid in installments.
The British promised that they would not ask to set up consulates along the railway through the city, and that they would not teach along the railway without the consent of the Qing government. Only then did Li Hongzhang’s worries be dispelled, and the British and American funds were bold to build the railway.
Compared with Britain’s progress in the railway, the Russians have made great strides into the northern famine, and they have to pay for it perfectly. At ordinary times, they can’t even think about it. They can recruit absolutely enough workers and employ 300 thousand workers. Only one year after the construction started, they built more than 500 kilometers of roads, and it will be open to traffic in two years.
There was a protest against Russia’s recruitment of laborers, because it was very different from Russia’s recruitment of those strong laborers, and their families absolutely didn’t want them. Moreover, they recruited laborers on a large scale and gave them a lot of benefits through intermediaries. This is already the nature of coolie trade, and opposing coolie trade is an important foreign policy, so Britain and France supported it.
However, Russia resolutely opposes the idea that they are legally recruiting workers, and has an agreement with the Qing government, and believes that they have no power to interfere with Russian and Qing laborers.
Yamato, Britain and France also put pressure on the Qing Dynasty, and as a result, a lot of help was given to recruit coolies, who were arrested in prison, which made the Russians very angry, but they needed to take advantage of this cheap labor to actually repair the railway and finally had to negotiate with Britain and France.
In the end, they got the workers, but they had to pay a higher price to supervise the signing of contracts with the workers directly in the three countries, but they could not cheat and exploit them through the middleman, and they needed to give the workers reasonable living conditions, and construction was not allowed in the cold winter, which made it expensive, which led them to recruit 300 thousand workers
Even with 300,000 Russians, the speed of railway construction is quite amazing, with an average of nearly two kilometers a day at 500 kilometers a year. It is impossible to remove grasslands, and the average speed of road construction exceeds two kilometers a day outside winter. Apart from the hard-working workers in China, it is actually mainly due to the objective reasons of grasslands, because most of them are flat, even if they want to cross mountains, there is no steep area, and there is no mountain terrain in the south, just like the great plains in the United States, which is very easy to build.
With the Russian railway going south step by step, Britain and France have had secret communication with Dalian, hoping that the three countries will keep consistent and stop Russia from going south.
After the Crimean War, Britain and France blocked Russia from entering the Mediterranean Sea and approaching the Indian Ocean, and now they are blocking Russians from approaching the Yangtze River.
It can’t be said that France completely followed Britain’s diplomatic strategy to prevent Russia from entering the Mediterranean because France is a Mediterranean coastal country. The direct impact of Russia’s entry into the Mediterranean is French interests, and there are deeper reasons for blocking Russia’s south in China.
Due to financial difficulties, the supporter behind Russia’s 1,500-kilometer-long Cha-Cha Railway is the newly rising Germany.
The Germans not only built a railway in Russia, but also reached a high capital loan and sent a large number of technical consultants. It can be said that the railway was built after the Germans spared no effort to help Russia.
The Franco-Prussian War made France and Germany a complete feud. Whenever Germany supports France, it will definitely oppose this, just as Russia and Turkey, China and Japan are no longer enemies, but enemies. The enemy can melt the hatred between enemies and friends, and it will never stop until one of them dries up the blood.
Later, the Franco-Russian alliance has not been seen yet. German diplomacy was dazzled by Bismarck’s skillful hands. At this time, Russia was a German ally and formed an alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary.
France, on the other hand, saw from the Franco-Prussian War that it was isolated and had no friends, so it kept pace with Britain. After all, Britain was their greatest guarantee during the recovery period of France, and Germany had to withdraw its troops from France because of British pressure. Now France’s military power is far from being restored, and it still needs British support to counter Germany.
But why does Germany support Russia so strongly?
Section six hundred and seventeen Germany push disaster
Germany strongly supports Russia, which is not without reason.
This has nothing to do with the alliance of the three emperors. The root cause is that Germany wants the Russians to move eastward
Bismarck presided over the diplomatic era, and the German base rarely expanded outward. It devoted itself to maintaining its position as a big six power and did not seek overseas expansion. There was a conflict with Britain because Bismarck was very accurate. Once Germany and Britain were on the opposite side, German disaster would come.
Because of Germany’s geographical position, it is doomed that Germany will finally have to face the enemy’s hatred with France, which has been resolved by law because of the Franco-Prussian War. If Germany wants to have a conflict with Britain, France will inevitably form an alliance with Britain.
For Russia, it is to win over and prevent Germany from confronting the Russians at the same time when it explodes into conflict with a third country. While winning over Russia and signing a treaty of alliance of three emperors aimed at safeguarding peace between China and Europe, it is committed to drawing the attention of the Russians from Europe. Germany and Russia have already divided up the territory of Poland, which is essentially adjacent to each other. If Russia wants to expand westward, Germany will inevitably bear the brunt. Unless Russia expands in other directions, Germany will inevitably fight with Russia.
Therefore, after Bismarck unified Germany, he firmly supported Russia’s expansion to Central Asia and the Far East, which made Russia’s conflict with Britain fierce in Central Asia and later broke out with the Japanese in the Far East.
Not to mention supporting Russia’s expansion, Bismarck even supported France’s outward expansion, which made up for France’s dissatisfaction with Germany after losing Alsace and Lorraine. He supported the French demands many times in colonial expansion. Unfortunately, Bismarck could not resolve the Franco-German feud no matter whether Germany ceded French territory or squeezed French reparations, it was impossible for the two countries to have peace, because the French were accustomed to pride and could not accept this shame.
There is a heart to support Russia’s outward expansion, not to mention that the Germans really have this ability now. After the Franco-Prussian War, the French patriotism stimulated the government to raise 5 billion francs in three years, so that the original plan was paid off in 39 years and paid off in three years.
Germany withdrew its troops, but got an unusually generous sum of money. After the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, the Japanese once said that they didn’t know how to spend the money. In fact, the Germans also had a sudden feeling of not knowing how to spend it.
It’s only been a few years since the money was spent, and a lot of money is still lying in the account of the German government. I don’t know where to spend it, so it is more than enough to support the Russians to build a railway.
Diplomacy has the purpose of supporting Russia’s expansion, funds can help Russia build roads, and in economic Germany, it can also help Russia build railways, because Germany is still mired in the economic crisis.
From the explosion of the world economic crisis in 173, even most people felt the cold winter, and Germany and the United States were the centers of this cold current. The most serious financial crisis in this century was the United States and Germany, and the United States did not say that railway speculation was too fierce.
Germany also has a serious overproduction due to excessive investment.
Because of the windfall of war, but I don’t know where to spend it, militarism ruled Germany and vigorously promoted the exhibition of heavy industry. After Germany defeated France in 171, the German government made a profit of 5 billion francs in gold compensation and established a stable gold position system in Germany. It also invested heavily in heavy industry, adopting the most advanced technology and high industry, which made the industrial strength of Germany increase rapidly. In 173, the coal output reached 27.26 million tons, ranking third in the world after the United States and Britain, and the Ruhr area became the most important industry in Germany.
After the economic crisis, the German government’s blind investment in horses suffered the most severe blow. The heavy industry declined, and the pig iron output fell for three consecutive years, from the highest output of 2.24 million tons before the crisis to 10,000 tons until the end of the 70s, when the output reached and passed the pre-crisis level. Krupp and other big factories laid off one-third to one-fourth of their workers, and the lathe work rate in Germany was still 30% until.
Serious economic crisis, overcapacity and a large number of unemployed workers are telling the German government that "Germany needs a market"!
Unwilling to compete for colonies through military expansion, Bismarck can expand the market by other means. Russia, a country with backward heavy industry, huge land and large population, is obviously the best market, and it is the only choice to sign a large number of trade treaties with Russia and invest heavily.
On this railway, it is in this situation that Russia is supported to build a loan, and Germany offers technicians one condition, that is, it must purchase German rails and railway locomotives, telegraph lines and telegraph equipment, and so on.
Supporting Russia’s diplomacy in building this railway can turn Russia’s expansion direction to the east, China’s funds can also find an investment channel for war reparations, and the economy and German enterprises can seek the market. These three favorable conditions make it impossible for Germany to refuse Russian railway construction loans and other support almost hit it off.
Germany is pushing for its own safety, so France can’t let them do what they want. He will pull Russia’s eyes back to Europe from other directions, which is in line with Britain’s interests. They need Russia to withdraw its attention from other directions. Russia occupies Central Asia and then fights with Britain. India doesn’t want them to control Tianjin and then fight for the Yangtze River with Britain.
Germany has led Russia to the east, and Britain and France naturally feel threatened, but the biggest feeling is still the big one. Accordingly, Britain and France suggest that the three countries have reached a unanimous attitude towards Russia’s southern issue, and they must never accept Russia’s interests other than commercial interests, otherwise the three countries will unite to obstruct Russia.
The political geography is so wonderful that it is far away in Europe and Asia, and a country in the west has made the eastern part of the big six feel great pressure. Germany wants to relieve its own pressure, but it has made the big six feel great pressure.
Another protagonist, Russia, can make all forces feel pressure at random. This polar bear’s influence in the world can’t be underestimated. Therefore, some historians believe that the history of the 19th century is not written by Britain and France, nor by Britain and Germany, but a microcosm of Russia’s struggle with Britain. This struggle for hegemony was not from the Crimean War, but from the moment Peter the Great set his eyes on the sea.
Section six hundred and nineteen New land
The track laying of the Pacific Railway Tunnel was completed in April and May. At the beginning of June, the first train from Omaha, the eastern starting point, arrived at the western end point. More than a dozen ocean-going ships were parked at the port of Sacramento River Port, which seemed to express a desire to "come and deliver the goods as much as you want"
And these merchant ships are all from China, and they need life-saving food brought back by China people during the famine, and now they have to play a funny drama with disgraced California rogue capitalists and politicians.
Stanford gave an impassioned speech at the port, saying that it was the first merchant ship to transport goods from the east through the Pacific Railway, congratulating the fact that it showed the value of this railway in front of the media.
Gentlemen, it takes less than three months for China, an ancient country across the ocean, to reach the eastern port of the United States. It takes 12 days to reach London every day, even if it takes 4 days to reach Paris through the Suez Canal, it takes 5 days to reach London, but it takes 24 days to reach the west coast of the United States from the China Sea and new york through the Pacific Railway. Do you know what this means?
Stanford hung up his appetite before saying, "This means that China, the oldest old continent, and the United States, the most modern new continent, have in fact been connected into a whole by this great cross-American railway, and the United States has become a region closer to Asia than Europe! Since then, the center of the world is no longer Asia, no longer Europe, but the great America. It is the great Americans who turned North America from a wilderness into the center of the world. It is this great railway that will be located in the corner of the world and the United States will become the center of the world. "
Stanford’s hysterical cry was greeted with a warm applause.
This rogue capitalist is so impassioned, of course, and he is really proud of all this. At the same time, he speaks and stops in the port waiting for loading. Merchant ships have quickly spread all over the United States through words and pictures. At this time, even stupid investors have interpreted a message that the business of Pacific Railway Company will not be completed and California will be a golden land full of opportunities.
Naturally, the stock of Pacific Railway Company has doubled again, which is four times higher than that of the country before it was opened to traffic, but it seems that there is still no limit.
But at this time, China laborers who helped Stanford achieve all this have long been forgotten by everyone. In a rapidly advancing country, people can see the heroes leading the way ahead but can’t see those who are crowded on the edge of the corner. Obviously, Stanford is such a hero at this moment, and Chinese workers are not the protagonists. They are the marginal people in the corner. Whether they will walk the center of the stage in this era is still unknown.
The soaring stock price of the railway company improved Stanford’s financial situation, and he was called the richest man in the United States. Some people lent him money and his financial situation improved, which also gave him enough activities to negotiate with China people.
It was to pay off the debt of China people. At that time, he bought 21% shares of the railway company, and Dalao Export Company lent him $10,000. At that time, it was agreed that land would repay the debt in three years. Now Stanford has some land in his hand, which he grabbed cheaply, but he doesn’t intend to sell it cheaply. At present, the value of the land has quadrupled as railway stocks. At that time, he bought it for more than $1 million, and now the value has reached $6 million. He didn’t think about selling it to China people, so the price he
China people are not stupid. They will not suffer from boredom. Stanford must make China people feel that it is worth the money.
And he can just give China people value that they can’t create by themselves, such as increasing the number of immigrants from China. He is an immigrant, but it doesn’t affect his occasional compromise. It’s like hiring Chinese workers to get benefits when repairing railways and making him feel wronged. It’s still very cost-effective to feel.
Why are China people allowed to immigrate to the land on the west side of Huada Mountain? Because the land price in Stanford White is still increasing, but if it can’t be released, the growth will be limited. In addition, he has found many gold mines, silver mines and copper mines in the mountains, but he can’t find anyone to adopt Chinese people. He has a way to hire miners.
The most important thing is that there are several Indians in the mountains here, and he needs some slightly literate races to help him get rid of these barbarians, so that those minerals can become his wealth instead of being shamefully buried in the ground under the threat of Indians
In fact, Irish people are better at this kind of thing, but it costs money to hire Irish people. If China people want to protect their farmland, they will take the initiative to fight Indians. Does he believe that those Indians will not be tempted when China people plant a lot of land? Indians robbed China, and the Chinese took up arms to exterminate the Indians. This picture is beautiful when you think about it.
The most beautiful thing is that the white lords can sit back and enjoy the success without doing anything, and he is the tallest among the white lords. The man sits on the throne of the pyramid like an emperor and watches these places and other ethnic groups kill each other.
Therefore, he suggested to Lao Company that two million mu of arable land along the railway line should be used to pay off the debts borrowed from them. Of course, this price is higher than the market price. Stanford said that he firmly believes that the land price will continue to rise. With the completion of the railway, more and more immigrants will come to California, and the land will become scarce. The value will naturally increase. Now it seems that Lao Company has suffered a loss, but if they can hire China people to farm in those lands, it will definitely be worth the money. Stanford said that he thinks that the California government should not object to where to immigrate 100,000 China people.
This is what he promised China people to buy him at a high price. He acquiesced that China people could immigrate to these lands by 100,000 people.
Stanford’s acquiescence is equivalent to the acquiescence of the California government. This is Stanford’s confidence. He thinks that he will eat these China guys. If he can’t hire people to farm China guys, what can he do even if he has land? There are talents in China who can buy him at a high price.